Bookmatch and Fourmatch slabs

If we want to have a brief definition of bookmatch and fourmatch stones, we can say that this is a kind of stone processing which operates on slab stones with special patterns. Bookmatch and Fourmatch names are because of the shapes created by these slab stones. In bookmatch forms, two slabs with similar designs are placed next to each other, and these two stones are placed next to each other horizontally or vertically and installed in the different places. The line between these two slab stones actually plays the role of the axis between them. Also, the same thing happens in Fourmatch stones but instead of two stones, four slab stones are used. By placing these 4 slabs together, a beautiful pattern creates.

The process of bookmatch and fourmatch stones

The initial stage of processing this sample of stones begins with their extraction from the mines. To extract bookmatch and fourmatch stones, the patterns in a block stone must be completed. After sending the block stones to the factories, they will cut into sheets with a thickness of 2 or 3 cm called slab stones. In continue, these slabs should be polished in parallel with each other to create a bookmatch design.

The use of bookmatch and fourmatch stones

Bookmatch and fourmatch stones are used in different parts of the buildings. Using the bookmatch and fourmatch stones in the interior or exterior design of the buildings can increase the beauty and uniqueness of the place they are used in. In addition, it’s better to use them in large spaces, because there is more possibility to show the unique beauty of these stones. So, the following uses can be mentioned for these stones:

  • Lobby wall of luxury buildings
  • Paving of the reception hall in the hotels
  • Stone walls of stairs in certain buildings
  • TV rooms
  • Construction of decorative spaces
  • Facade of the luxury buildings

Stones with bookmatch and fourmatch design

This type of stone processing can be used in all types of high-quality building stones. Also, one of the main conditions of this processing is the existence of designs and patterns on the surface of the stone. So, stones that have a uniform and simple surface won’t be a suitable option for this process. Among the stones that have this ability, we can mention marble, granite, travertine, crystal and onyx stones if they have pattern and design.

The advantages of bookmatch and fourmatch slabs

Stone processing in the form of slabs has many advantages. This method is very eye-catching compared to the old methods and it can also increase the lifespan of the stone. In this method of stone cutting, unique stones can be created by using modern cutting machines and materials. In general, the advantages of slab stones include the following items:

  • Greater strength and beauty
  • Low production waste
  • Ease of transportation
  • High diversity
  • Ease of selection
  • Lighting capability
  • High quality

The price of bookmatch and fourmatch slabs

As you know, slab stones are more expensive than tile stones. And, the reason is the higher cost of processing of this type of stone. The next reason is that the sizes of slabs are bigger than tile stones, so they have higher prices. So, due to the relatively high prices of these stones, they are usually used in luxury buildings in a limited and decorative way, which is affordable.

General classification of building stones

Building stones are classified based on 3 structural characteristics:

  1. Based on specific weight: stones with a weight of more than 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter are called heavy stones and stones with a weight of less than 1.8 grams per cubic centimeter are called light stones.
  2. Based on pressure resistance: heavy stones have a pressure resistance between 100 and 1000 MPa and light weight stones have a pressure resistance between 4 and 100 MPa.
  3. Based on the softening coefficient: If the stone has a degree of softening coefficient between 0.6 and 1, it can be considered as a building stone and used in building constructions.

Foundation stones

For the foundation of the buildings, which is located on the ground level and underground, stones with a softening coefficient of more than 0.7 should be used. Also, stones that don’t contain clay or non-homogeneous minerals should be used. According to these points, granite stones are a suitable option for use in the foundation of the building.

Stone wall

For the construction of stone walls, igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic stones should be used that have the following characteristics:

  • Stones that their pressure resistance is between 0.04 and 50 MPa.
  • Stones that their specific weight is between 0.9 and 2.2 grams per cubic centimeter.
  • Stones that their softening coefficient is between 0.6 and 0.7.

Facade and paving stones

All igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary stones that have the following features can be used in façade and paving stones:

  • Stones that their pressure resistance is more than 5 MPa.
  • Stones that their softening coefficient is between 0.7 and 1.
  • There should be no cracks in the stone.
  • There should be no harmful minerals in the stone.

Stone, the best flooring

Stones have been the oldest and most durable building materials due to their strong structure and resistance to climate changes. So, using stones for flooring is better than other materials such as ceramics, wood and etc.  According to the features and structures of various stones, their uses are also different and it depends on the locations and spaces. For example, the paving of the hall and reception area can’t be the same as the paving of the park and sidewalks. and in this article, we will try to understand what kind of stones are suitable for different paving.

Internal and external Paving stones

Basically, the internal and external paving stones of the buildings should have a special harmony. It is true that stones have various uses and maybe you can’t use the indoor floor stones for outdoor spaces. But they can’t be completely irrelevant especially if the exterior of the building is separated from the interior by glass and large windows.

Here are some of the characteristics of natural stones:

  • Stones are naturally cold and using them in hot and dry areas can cool down the warm environment of your home. And, walking on cool stone in the hot season will make you feel so good. Also, stones are very suitable for transferring heat to the environment. You can easily heat them in the cold seasons to make the environment pleasant. And, heat doesn’t harm the stones.
  • Stones are not allergenic compared to wood and using them are the best option for people who suffer from allergies. Also, cleaning them are so easy and simple because they are resistant to dust.
  • Natural stones have more affordable prices than other materials. Therefore, by using them you can lower the costs.
  • They have much longer resistance and durability than other materials, and they don’t pollute the environment.
  • Stones are the best option for street and yard paving, because of the stones are resistance to climate changes and other probable damages and threats and using them for these places can be a good choice.

When you want to buy stones, ask the seller to guide you with the suitable ones for the area you want to use them. Also, ask the seller to guide and teach you how to install, maintain and clean them.

Suitable stones for interior flooring

Indoor spaces are divided into various parts for which each of them must uses its own special stone. We will mention some of them below:

Hall and reception floor

Since these parts are not in open areas, you can use marble or crystal stones for them. The stones of hall and reception flooring are used in different dimensions such as 80×80 and 60×60 cm, and their thickness must be between 14 and 20 mm.

Room floor

Suitable natural stones for the floor of the rooms are also marble and crystal stones. Of course, it is better to use 40×40 and 40×20 cm sizes with the thickness of between 14 and 20 mm.

Stairs and parking lot floor

Because of the fact that there is too much traffic and pressure in these places, the stones which are used in stairs and parking lots should have high resistance and low water absorption, such as marble, crystal and granite stones. The appropriate thickness for stepping stone is between 30 and 40 mm, and for the stone of the stairs and parking lot wall is between 14 and 18 mm.

Commercial, administrative and educational complexes floor

Paving stones of these places should have high abrasion resistance and low water absorption due to the high traffic and the possibility of damaging movements. Granite and crystal stones will be a good option for commercial, administrative and educational complexes with the thickness of 18 and 20 mm.

Suitable stones for exterior flooring

Basically, the floor stone of the yard must be in harmony with the architectural style of the building. In another way, both of them must be in modern or classical style. And, the paving of passages and streets should be in harmony with the style of urban planning.

Yard and park floor

The paving stones of the yard and parks should be chosen in balance with the general view and architectural style. But there are several important points to be mentioned: first, the stones shouldn’t be slippery. Second, the stones should have the standard thickness. And third, they should be resistant to cold and heat. So, marble, crystal and granite stones with suitable thickness of 25 and 40 mm will be a good choice for these places.

Passage and sidewalk floor

Stones of passages and sidewalks paving must have high resistance to pressure and cold and heat. Granite and crystal stones with the thickness of between 40 and 100 mm, and especially cubic stones which have a high thickness, are suitable for these places.

What are the suitable stones for yard?

One of the parts of the buildings that can has a great effect on the design and beauty of the buildings is the yard. The use of stones for the yard can have a significant effect on the beauty of this part. Natural stones are the best materials for use in the courtyard of the buildings. If you are looking for a suitable stone for the yard of your building, you should keep a few points in mind. The first and most important point is the stone resistance to cold, heat and pressure. Also, the stone strength and the degree of its water absorption is very important. Because there is a possibility of flooding and rain in the yard, so the stones of this part should have low water absorption. And, these stones must have special processing to prevents people from slipping.

Different natural stones for the yard

As you know, there are different types of building stones available in the market and each of them has its special uses. Therefore, it is necessary to know different kind of stones and their uses to choose the best yard stone. Here are some of the suitable stones to use in this part:

Granite stone

It can be said that granite is one of the most popular and best-selling stones and it is suitable for the yards too. Also, this stone is very resistant to all weather conditions. Another advantage of granite stone is its diversity in design and color, and you can find granite in different colors and shapes in the market which includes dark and light colors. Granite stone is also used in other parts of the building, including:

  • Stairs
  • Walls
  • Staircase wall
  • Decorative tables in the yard

Travertine stone

Travertine stone is one of the best stones for building floors, and it is harder and less porous than limestone. This stone is a good choice for the bottom of swimming pools in the yard due to its smooth and porous surface.

Slate stone

Slate stone is usually used in the yards to beautify the environment. The color of this stone varies and it is a suitable option for regions with cold climates, because this stone has a high resistance to cold weather conditions.

Marble stone

If you want to use stone with light and cream theme for the yard, marble stone can be very good option. Due to its dense and strong texture, it can be a lasting and durable stone. Marble stones have different finishings and designs that are offered in various sizes.

Facade washing

There are harmful pollutants in the air that are caused by the smoke of cars and factories. These pollutants with dust and acid rains sit on the facade stones and cause them to become dark and dirty. When the facade of the building gets dirty in addition to effects on the appearance of the building, it also effects on the appearance of the neighborhood and the city.

What is façade cleaning?

The set of services that are performed to remove dirt, stains or any type of pollution from the surface of the facade stone of the building using special materials and specialized tools is called façade washing or façade cleaning. There is no fixed method for washing facade stones. And, according to each building facade, its washing may be different. Note that as washing facade makes it beautiful, it also can cause serious damage to the façade if the wrong washing method is used.

For washing the facade of a building according to the type of it, you can use special materials and substances such as detergents, acidic materials and nano materials. Also, the tools used for washing can be different according to the type of mass and stains sitting on the façade stones.

Buildings that need facade washing

There are various buildings that when you look at them you realize that their facades need to be washed. Next, we want to check them together.

  1. One of the buildings that need facade washing are old buildings that have been built for a long time and have not been cleaned during this time. During their lifetime, these buildings have absorbed a lot of dirt and pollution, and the color of their façade stones are no longer clear. In these buildings, most of the facade stones are washed with a waterjet machine 220 times along with special materials for removing stains.
  2. The next item whose facade stones need to be washed are the buildings that have been renovated and they have just finished their construction phase. In these buildings, due to their stone work, the soil sits on the surface of the stones and makes them dirty. Also, there might be some mortar on the surface of the stones and make their appearance ugly. In these cases, you can wash the facade of your building by contacting facade cleaning companies.
  3. In addition to buildings whose facades are made of stones, there are buildings that have glass facades. These buildings also need washing and cleaning. One of the disadvantages of this type of facade is that it gets dirty soon and needs to be washed regularly. In the autumn and winter seasons, after snow and rain, spots remain on the glass. These facades need to be washed every three months.

Types of stone washing methods

there are two methods for washing the stone facade, and you can choose each of these according to the type of your facade, your budget, and its safety:

Washing the façade with Rapple method without scaffolding

Due to the progress of science and the construction of tall buildings all over the world, it is no longer possible to wash the stone facade with the scaffolding method. Washing stones with this way reduces the speed of people’s actions and for this reason, the Rappel method is replaced. The rappel method or washing with a rope is much safer, faster, and at the end it has higher quality than the scaffolding method. And, in general, choosing this method doesn’t take any risks.

Washing the façade by the scaffolding method

This washing method is an old and traditional method that is rarely used due to the high cost and risk. This method is usually used when there isn’t enough space to use ropes for cleaning.

The best time to wash the facade

In big cities, there are a lot of pollution in the air such as factories and cars smoke. Some of these pollutants are decomposed and purified by plants. But most of them remain in the air and over time sit on the building façades and make them dirty and over time the stones become darker and won’t have their initial brightness. This time is the time to wash the facade. With using machines with high water pressure, these pollutants are removed from the facade. If hard materials except stones are used in the facade of your building, you can use the sandblasting method to clean it.

The price of façade washing

The price of façade stone washing is determined by several factors. Among these factors, we can mention the amount of pollution, the time spent for washing, the difficulty of washing method and the final quality of the work. If there is any changes in the items mentioned, the cost of the façade washing will increase or decrease. Before doing it, agree on the price with the relevant companies.

The Best Stone Facade

With the expansion of urbanization, we can see the increase of constructions in different cities of the world. Nowadays, architects and builders give a special importance to the facade of the building. And, they try to own a brand for themselves in the construction industry by implementing a desirable and stylish facade.

Builders and designers do their best to use both modern and classic materials and styles to make the interior and exterior of the buildings look more beautiful and provide a favorite environment for a peaceful life. The exterior of the building is the only part of a building that can be seen or judged by the public. And, it is actually the birth certificate of the construction and sometimes the name of the building is taken from its facade. The facade of the building not only protects the building against various environmental factors, but also gives it a unique charm and beauty to it.

Various materials are used in the design of the facade, such as stone, wood, brick, panels and etc. Each of them has its own advantages and unique characteristics. Among all the materials, stone is the only one that has been used from the ancient times till today, and its durability and high resistance have always been noticed. The

facade stone must have certain characteristics. for example, it must be free of cracks to prevent stone breakage by climate changes and water absorption over passing time. A good facade stone should has the necessary pressure and UV rays resistance and low water absorption.

Before choosing and buying a facade stone, you should learn about the disadvantages, features and usages of stones. RAS stone team has provided readers with complete information, including the use and analysis of all natural building stones, and it is recommended to you to visit our website before buying a stone.

One of the simple ways to distinguish between high-quality and low-quality stone is to tap on the stone with a metal tool. If the stone makes the sound of a glass, then it has no cracks and breaks and it is a high-quality stone.

Suitable stones for the façade

The stone of the main façade should has the necessary resistance to sunlight, cold, heat, humidity, air pollution and other damageable factors. Basically, facade builders and designers use travertine, sand stone, granite and crystal stone in designing the facade of the building. Each of these stones has their special features that we will discuss in details below.

Travertine stone

Compared to other facade stones, travertine has more features. Due to its special structure, travertine has a good adhesion with mortar and separate it from the facade is so difficult. And, it is lighter than other facade stones and it has a high variety of colors. One of the disadvantages of this stone is that it is not a good choice for cold and frosty areas due to its porous structure. The price of travertine stone depends on the type of its color and quarry and basically white ones such as pars travertine are more expensive than the others.

 Granite stone

The main characteristic of granite stone is its high resistance. Due to its high density and very low water absorption, granite stone doesn’t have a good adhesion with mortar and for this reason, if it doesn’t install well, it may separate from the facade. Granite stone is used with polished surface in modern facades. One of the characteristics of granite stone in the facade is its high-pressure resistance and the fact that granite doesn’t absorb air pollution. Among the disadvantages of granite stone facade is its high weight and lack of good adhesion with mortar. The price of white granite stones is cheaper than black, red and green ones.

Crystal stone

Crystal stone has been used in building facades for a long time, even before using granite stones. Nowadays, crystal stone has opened its place in the facade of luxury buildings with new stone processing such as Bookmatch and Fourmatch. Among the characteristics of this stone, we can mention its good adhesion with mortar, low water absorption and a high pressure resistance. White and silver crystal stones are more expensive than others.

Sand stone

Sandstone is formed of various minerals such as silica, iron oxide, calcium carbonate and dolomite. These stones have high resistance and high water absorption. And for this reason, they do not have a good adhesion with mortar. Sandstones in Iran don’t have a variety of colors and they are often seen in yellow, gray and brown colors. This stone is suitable for modern design and it is often use with white stone, brick and wood. The price of sandstone is cheaper than travertine, granite and crystal stones.

 

A suitable stone for the façade of the buildings should be selected based on the geographical locations. In cold areas where there is a possibility of snow and frost, stones that have less porosity are recommended to use. In addition, in areas where sandstorms occur constantly, the life of the façades become shorter. For this reason, by considering the geographical conditions and climate changes, you can choose and buy a suitable stone.

In general, the stone used for facade should has the following features:

  • It must be free of cracks
  • It must have good bending strength
  • It must be resistant to climate changes
  • It shouldn’t be discolored by sunlight
  • It should be resistant to acid rain
  • Façade stone must be free of porosity

What is the best stone for stairs?

Using a suitable stone for the staircase of a building is very important, because the staircase is a place of high traffic. When designers or architects decide to construct a building, they must consider to use good materials for their projects in terms of the safety. The most impressive part of a building is its facade and stairs.

As mentioned, the staircase of a building is a place with high traffic, and it is visible to all the people who live or come in. That’s why the architects try to use the best materials for this part of the buildings. Although stone is a heavy and hard material, but it can give a special effect to the building due to its beautiful texture and natural color.

If we want to mention the types of stones that can be used for the stairs, we can mention granite and marble stones. But, the best and suitable type for staircase is granite stone.

Building stones have their own use and the climatic and geographical conditions of the region they are going to use is very important to be noticed. Also, natural stones are different in terms of resistance. The best type of the stones is one that is resistant to pollution and water absorption.

Types of staircase’s stones and their use

Granite stone

Granite is a high resistance stone with high polish and unique appearance. And, it is also resistant to acidic detergents, so you can clean it easily and it does not show any chemical reactions against these materials. This stone has low water absorption, so it is a good choice for the staircase designs. This stone is mostly used in high-traffic places, such as office and commercial complexes, road construction, sidewalks, stairs and etc.

Onyx stone

Onyx is a luxury stone that is mostly used in the interior designs of the buildings. This stone has a high resistance to cold and heat. In terms of its long life, onyx is a suitable stone for stairs. And, over passing time, this stone won’t lose its appearance. In addition to the interior parts of the buildings, onyx stone can also be used in the exterior parts. And, this stone is highly resistant to acid rains. One of the important features of onyx is that it has the ability to pass the light. If you are looking for a good, high-quality and luxury stone for stairs, this stone is a good option. But, in terms of price, it has a relatively high price.

What is the best stone for the stairs?

Architects and designers expect the stone they use for the internal and external stairs have a high-quality and it keeps its appearance and quality for years. The stone used for the stairs should not have any cracks because its surface will break over time. So, it’s important to use high-quality stones with low water absorption and they must be resistant to detergents and chemicals. Using natural stones in the stairs give a special effect to the building due to their special texture and natural color.

Here is a great point for you when you want to choose or buy a natural stone:

It’s easy to recognize a good and high-quality stone when it makes the sound of glass when you hit it. Hit the stone with a metal object, if it makes a glass sound, it means that the stone does not have any cracks and it is a good stone.

Features of a suitable stone for staircase

The stones that builders and designers can use for the staircase are marble, granite and lime stone. And, according to their taste in stones and the cost of them, they can choose each of these stone.

Below are some of the features of stepping stones:

  • They must be highly resistant to weather conditions and water absorption
  • Stairway stones must have high resistance to pressure and scratches.
  • The stones used for the stairs must have a special color and texture.
  • And most importantly, they should have a high quality which is very important.

As mentioned, you should choose a stone for stairs with all of these features so that it won’t crack or break over time.

To buy high quality granites, please check our products.

Natural stone quarries in Iran

Iran is one of the countries with various mines. And, about 25% of the known quarries of Iran are building stone mines. Iran’s natural resources have taken a large share of the world market. In the field of natural stone, there are many quarries in various places and cities of Iran which supply the country’s domestic consumption and foreign exports.

In continue, we will introduce the most important stone mines of Iran.

Mining from the Iranian stone quarries

Extracted stones from Iranian mines have a great variety in type, color, design and quality. Meanwhile, in countries such as Brazil and India, there is only granite and in Italy there is only marble.

As we know, the taste of people in the society is different from time to time and this huge variety of Iranian stones make the market respond faster and customers can choose different stones for their projects.

The variety of discovered stone quarries in Iran is as follows:

  • Marble stones 54%
  • Granite stones 20%
  • Crystal stones 15%
  • Travertine stones 10%
  • Onyx stones 1%

In this article, we’re going to speak about the most important stone mines of Iran in Isfahan, West Azerbaijan, Lorestan, Fars, Yazd and Central provinces:

Isfahan Province

This province has the most important stone quarries of Iran. It has 89 travertine mines, which is the highest number among the provinces of this country.

West Azerbaijan Province

This province produces more than 4000 tons of construction stones every year. stones with high quality and variety. In this province, there are about 440 mines that have licenses, and approximately one-half of this number is related to building stone quarries. Marble, onyx and granite are among the stones which are extracted from the mines of this province.

Azarshahr is the most important and famous city of West Azerbaijan province in this industry. It is famous in the world for its red travertine. Azarshahr city has 40 active mines and from this point of view it is considered one of the important centers of stone production in this country.

Lorestan Province

This province has about a quarter of Iran’s building stone resources, so it is considered one of the important provinces in stone industries in Iran.

There are about 70 marble and crystal mines in this province, and it has the largest number of stone quarries among other provinces.

Fars Province

Crystal and Marble stones are about 15% of all the stones extracted from Fars province mines.

There are 398 active stone quarries in Fars province, which generally are about 10% of the Iran’s stone mines. Also, due to its high-quality stones, this province has exported about 30% of Iran’s natural stones.

Yazd Province

Stone quarries of this province are very diverse and most of them are granite, marble and crystal mines.

About one million and 300,000 tons of stones are extracted from Iran’s quarries every year, and Yazd province owns more than 30% of this extraction.

Central Province

This province has the largest number of the active building stone quarries with 64 travertine mines. And, currently the Central province supplies a significant part of the travertine stone needed by the internal market and it is considered to have important stone mines.

Mahalat city is famous to has one of the most important sources of travertine stone mines in the world and it has a great diversity.

Stones in different types, with different textures and colors are one of the natural materials used for constructions and buildings. Today, slabs of granite and marble stones are used to beautify the different parts of the buildings. Stones have their unique characteristics that make them possible to be used for various purposes. For instance, travertine which is considered an inexpensive stone and has a variety of colors, is mostly used outdoors.

What are the features of a high quality stone?

The stone used in the interior or exterior design must be free of cracks and even free of harmful minerals. Basically, a high-quality stone should have low water absorption and be resistant to atmospheric changes such as cold, heat, sunlight, and chemicals. In many cases, the buyers of building stones only pay attention to the appearance of the stone, which may cause them problems over passing time and finally they won’t be satisfied with their purchase. Most buyers and consumers of stones are looking for the color and uniformity of the stone, while the stones have been formed over millions of years. So, they have a natural texture and the color of them are inspired by the nature.

When you want to buy a building stone, you should pay attention to the place that the stone is going to be installed. Because, each stone has its special use and it is suitable for one or more parts of the building space. The places that can be separated in the building usually include the different parts of interior and exterior designs, residential and commercial paving, steps, elevators, parapets and etc.

The suitable stone for exterior or building facade is a stone that is resistant to cold, heat and UV rays of the sun. So, stones like travertine, granite and sandstone can be used for this purpose.

The suitable stone for the interior facade is a stone that is hard and has a beautiful appearance. And, it doesn’t need to be resistant to weather conditions or climate changes. Therefore, stones such as marble, onyx, limestone and crystal can be used for interior places. But there is no restriction on the type of stone for the interior walls of the building.

Suitable stone for stairs and steps

The suitable stone for stairs and steps, especially in places with high traffic, is a stone that is hard enough. So, granite stone is the best option for use in stairs. But if you have a desire to use marble stone, you must definitely use high-quality and first-class marble.

Suitable stone for indoor and residential paving

Stone is the best and most highly resistant flooring in the world, and so far, no more resistant and beautiful material than natural stone has been made or known. Stones will give a pleasant and beautiful atmosphere to the building.

The best and most suitable stone for indoors and paving stones of residential buildings are those that have water absorption, high abrasion resistance and less porosity. Among the building stones, marble, onyx and crystal stones are suitable for these places. But, in offices and commercial buildings where there is more traffic, a hard stone which is resistant to pressure should be used, such as granite or high-quality marble stones.

Suitable stone for pavements

A suitable stone for such spaces should be resistant to pressure, frost and chemicals. Granite and crystal stones which are especially produced in the form of cubes are suitable for such spaces.

Suitable stone for bathrooms

For spaces with high humidity, such as bathrooms and WC, the best stone is a stone that has low water absorption and it is resistant to chemical detergents. Among the existing stones, granite and crystal stones are more suitable for this use.

Architects’ opinion about the stones

Iran is a country with many natural stone mines and since ancient times, the use of stone has been an interest due to its resistance, stability and beauty. Obviously, in the past due to the difficulties of extraction, transportation and grinding, except in the mountain villages and in luxurious buildings, construction with stone has been a difficult, expensive and time-consuming task. In the past, stones not only have been used for decorative work, but they also have been used for their great strength.

With the introduction of mining and stone cutting machines in the new era and the industrialization of natural stone extraction, the use of stones in the facade and flooring have become popular. And, stone which was a luxurious product in urban areas has become a useful material for buildings and constructions. And, it has become easily accessible to the general public.

Before that, most important offices or luxurious buildings were made of stone and they were a symbol of glory and power. With the discovery of new mines and the acceleration of extraction, the variety of stones offered in the market gradually increased and the prices were also adjusted. So, designers developed more creativity in the use of these stable and beautiful materials.

Now, Iran is in the list of the first 7 countries in the world in production and processing of decorative stones. The old methods of processing, transporting and installing natural stones may waste this useful material. And, by considering the fact that in big cities, with the increase in population and the cost of land, tall buildings become more popular. Therefore, it is no longer cost-effective to make the facade heavier by the old methods of slow stone installation. And, the issue of time as well as lightening facade is very important, especially due to earthquakes.

When architects are familiar with stone finishing process that can be applied on the surface of stones with different tools, the suitable stone for strength of the facade, floor and etc., they can make better choices for their designs.

It is obvious that the production and supply market must always consider the demands of architectures, professionals and builders in order to be successful. Also, architects can no longer be accountable to their employers with old approaches and traditional methods of execution.